Hyperdontia also known as supernumerary teeth is an oral condition characterized by the eruption of extra teeth that are not supposed to be there, normally. The number of primary teeth is 20 and the normal number of permanent teeth is 32. Primary teeth are the initial set of teeth that erupt in a person’s mouth, generally by the age of 36 months.
The teeth shed when the person is about 12 years old. Permanent teeth than get the place of the primary teeth and are entirely erupted by the time the person turned 21 years. Those persons who develop more than 20 primary teeth or more than 32 permanent teeth have hyperdontia. The additional erupted teeth are referred to as supernumerary teeth.
Supernumerary teeth can arise in any part of the dental arch, but the most frequent supernumerary teeth are permanent, anterior incisors, in the maxillary (upper) arch. After maxillary incisors, maxillary and mandibular (lower arch) fourth molars are the next most common supernumerary teeth. These normally emerge as additional impacted wisdom teeth. An extra maxillary incisor is called a mesiodens, and an additional fourth molar is referred to as a distodens or distomolar. Additional primary teeth present at or shortly after birth is called natal teeth.
The occurrence of hyperdontia is between 1% and 4% of the population with a male to female ratio of 2:1. Most frequently the cases are restricted to a single tooth but sometimes multiple rows of teeth also erupt.
It is essential to identify, evaluate, and treat supernumerary teeth as soon as possible because the extra teeth will create both cosmetic and functional problems for the affected person. Supernumerary teeth mainly cause clinical problems which are followed by the treatment generally consists of removal of the teeth when possible. Supernumerary teeth may create hurdles resulting in delayed eruption of adjacent teeth or crowding which often require orthodontic treatment to fix it. If it is not treated timely the teeth can lead to the development of cysts or tumors.
Hyperdontia causes, treatment and images
check out the possible causes and treatment of Hyperdontia with images below:
Causes of Hyperdontia
Researchers are not yet able to give a specific cause of the growth of extra teeth in the mouth. Though, there is an indication that genetics may possibly play a part in their development. Hyperdontia may also be caused by malformations of the mouth like a cleft lip and palate. Hyperdontia condition is also related with some diseases including Ehler-Danlos syndrome and Gardner syndrome.
People often do not recognize that they have a supernumerary tooth before the growth of a complete set of baby teeth. Extra teeth build up during the early stage of teeth development. In this phase, a tooth bud tears, forming two teeth, in which one of them is the unnecessary extra tooth.
Supernumerary teeth can grounds numerous oral problems
First, it prevents the permanent teeth to erupt normally or even fuse with permanent teeth. In this circumstance, the teeth will be prone to decompose as the extra teeth can be shaped and placed unusually.
Second, it also causes dental crowding and in such situation individual may difficulty while eating. Even, the teeth can form a cyst that can grow into a tumor.
Treatment for Hyperdontia (Supernumerary Teeth)
The supernumerary teeth formation cannot be prevented. Its removal is the main treatment for hyperdontia. However, the sorting of the supernumerary teeth along with the situation of the adjacent teeth should be taken into consideration. The outcomes of the treatment should good than bad. If the treatment causes problems to the adjacent teeth, it is better not to do the supernumerary teeth extraction.
If you are not facing any problem with hyperdontia, it is better to leave it to avoid complications related to supernumerary teeth removals such as severed blood vessel and nerve, maleruption, ankylosis, fractured maxillary tuberosity, and compromised maxillary sinus and pterygomaxillary space.
Removal of Extra teeth
The complete treatment procedure of hyperdontia involves the removal of the extra tooth or teeth by the dentist in Apex as soon as possible. Oral surgery may be required depending on the position of the extra teeth. Tooth extraction is done under local or general anesthesia depending on how severe the problem is.
To prevent any possible future dental problems a child should be examined by an orthodontist at seven years. In this exam, the orthodontist can see if the child has hyperdontia and fix the problem before the supernumerary teeth cause any troubles when permanent teeth erupt. Consult your dentist immediately to understand the severity of circumstance and find the best treatment plan. Many dental insurance companies also cover the cost for treatment of hyperdontia because it is classified as preventative care.